Shah (ʃɑː; شاه, pronounced ʃɒːh, king) is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically known as Persia in the West). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan (a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia) namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire (Şah and Şeh), Mughal emperors of the South Asia, the Bengal Sultanate, and Afghanistan. In Iran (and the Greater Iran region) the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Iranian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah (شاهنشاه, King of Kings) or Padishah (پادشاه, Master King) of the Persian Empire.

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