Maithon is a census town in Nirsa CD Block in Dhanbad district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is situated on the banks of river Damodar. The name has been derived from Maithan or Mai-Ka-Than (Hindi) or Ma-Er-Than (Bengali), the "than" being an apa-bhransha or a local pronunciation of Sanskrit/Bengali "Sthan" for "place". The place of Mai or Ma or mother, refers to Goddes Durga or Ma Kalyaneswari of the famous Kalyaneswari temple nearby. Maithon Dam, of the Damodar Valley Corporation, constitutes one of the most accomplished and successful river valley projects of India, which was a part of the First Five Year Plan after India's independence. The Damodar Valley region, which Maithon froms a part of, is often hailed as the Ruhr Valley of India. As per 2011 Census of India Maithon had a population of 18,830, of which 9,942 were males and 8,888 females. Scheduled Castes numbered 2,830 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 1,128. As of 2001 India census, Maithon had a population of 19,728. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Maithon has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 67%. In Maithon, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.